TWIST

The direction in which the yarn is spun is called twist. Yarns are characterized as S-twist or Z-twist according to the direction of spinning. Generally, handspun single plies are spun with a Z-twist, and plying is done with an S-twist.

INSERT PHOTO OF S VS Z Twists. 


PLY

A process used to create a strong, balanced yarn. It is done by taking two or more strands of yarn that each have a twist to them and putting them together. The strands are twisted together, in the direction opposite that in which they were spun. A two-ply is thus a yarn plied from two strands, a six-ply is one from six strands, and so on. Most commercial yarns are more than a two ply.


Carding

The mechanical process that disentangles, cleans and intermixes fibers to produce a continuous batt or roving prepared for spinning. It breaks up locks and unorganised clumps of fibre and then aligns the individual fibers to be parallel with each other. In fiber processing, this step follows teasing and proceeds spinning. Carding can be done by machine or by hand with tools like hand or drum carders.